Names, terms and dates



Tower of London, the built by William the Conqueror; once a Royal Prison, a Royal Zoo, a Royal Mint and a Royal Arsenal
mint, a a building where money is made
arsenal, an a building where weapons, gunpowder etc. were stored
Royal Warders once guards of the prisoners at the Tower; nowadays they are tour guides
Beefeater, a nickname of the Royal Warders at the Tower
Traitor’s Gate at the Tower where prisoners were taken into the building from the River Thames
coronation, a a ceremony when a monarch is crowned
Lord Mayor the official mayor of the City of London since 1189; elected for one year only
Lord Mayor’s Show when the newly appointed Lord Mayor of the City is carried in a beautiful coach from his home to the Strand
City, the the oldest part of London, in the Roman times in it was the centre with the Basilica, the Forum, public baths etc. and was surrounded by a wall
White Tower, the built about 1078, it was the tallest building in London at that time and was built to fear intruders; now it is a museum of the Royal Armoury and past torture tools
Jewel House inside the Tower of London where the famous Crown Jewels (including crowns, sceptres etc.)
Richard III (1483 – 1485, House of York) the last Yorkist; brother of Edward IV and Lord Protector of Edward’s older son and his successor Edward V; Richard imprisoned him and his brother and nobody ever saw them again
Princes in the Tower two sons of Edward IV who were put in prison in the Tower by their uncle Richard – according to the legend their bones were found about 200 years later
Tower Bridge, the opened in 1894; probably the world’s most famous bascule bridge (= opens in the middle)


Hyde Park the largest Royal park in the heart of London
Serpentine, the the lake of Hyde Park
Speaker’s Corner inside Hyde Park; anyone can come here and protest or make a speech about any topic except for gossips about the Royal Family
Kensington Palace inside Kensington Gardens, home of the late Princess Diana
London Zoo the world’s oldest scientific zoo, opened in 1828, situated in Regent’s Park
Little Venice a canal area where you can get from Regent’s Park by boat on one of the canals; got its name from the Italian city Venice
St James’s Park in front of Buckingham Palace; the oldest Royal park
observatory, an a study centre with a telescope which astronomers use to study the stars and the planets
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) the time at Greenwich, England, used as an international standard
Greenwich Park home for the Royal Observatory and the Prime Meridian Line

THE TUDORS – on Quizlet

King Henry VII (1485 – 1509) the first Tudor king who won the final battle of the War of Roses; he was a powerful monarch who saved a lot of money for Britain in the treasury
treasury, the a place used for storing the money of the monarchs or the Church
King Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) he had 6 wives and 3 legitimate children; he liked sports like hunting, jousting and tennis; he sang, played music and composed songs; he built a strong navy for Britain as well as palaces;

he founded the Church of England

King Edward VI (1547 – 1553) son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; he was a boy king and died at the age of 15; a protestant
Lady Jane Grey was queen for 9 days until Mary, daughter of Henry VIII came and put her in prison
Queen Mary I (1553 – 1558) daughter of Henry VIII and first wife Catherine of Aragon ;a Roman Catholic; made England catholic again and she ordered to execute protestants (ß nickname: Bloody Mary); she was very unpopular when she got married to the King of Spain
Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; a powerful and strict monarch who made England protestant again; she sent explorers to find new lands for the British Empire; nickname: the Virgin Queen; she won battles against the Spanish Armada on the sea
gentry, the people from high social class
yeoman, a a man who owned and land and also worked on it
jousting knights riding horses and fighting with a lance
falconry hunting with falcons or hawks
Pastime with Good Company a song composed by Henry VIII, named as The King’s Ballad
petty school a school for young boys, like a nursery or kindergarten
illiterate unable to read and write
galleon, a a ship with sails for fighting and carrying goods
Renaissance, the period in Europe btw. 14th and 17th centuries, where people got interested in ancient Greece and Rome again which produced new developments in arts: literature, music, painting and architecture
curfew, a when people mustn’t go out to the street at night
flogging a type of punishment when people were whipped and hit by sticks
pillory, the a type of punishment; a wooden frame on a pole with holes through which a person’s head and hands were placed
stock, the a type of punishment;  a wooden frame with holes through which a person’s feet was put


Stratford-upon-Avon  a city in the centre of England, the birthplace of the greatest English playwright and poet, William Shakespeare
April 23, 1564  the possible date of birth of William Shakespeare
April 23, 1616  the day when William Shakespeare died
Anne Hathaway  William Shakespeare’s wife and mother of three children
The Lord Chamberlain’s Men / The King’s Men  the former and the latter name of a company of actors, Shakespeare was a member and manager of the company
sonnet, a  a kind of poem of exactly 14 lines, mostly about love, death and loss
Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon  William Shakespeare is buried her, in the churchyard
comedy, a  a funny play
tragedy, a  a play in which the characters suffer and usually the main character dies at the end
Globe Theatre, the  the first one was built at the time of Queen Elizabeth I to show Shakespeare’s plays; the newest opened in 1997 to show the Elizabethan theatre at an interactive lesson and exhibition
playwright, a  someone who writes plays (especially as their job)
commoners, the  people who don’t belong to a royal or aristocratic family
aristocrats, the  people in the highest class of the society who usually have money, land and power
scenery / setting, the  furniture and painted background on a theatre stage
stage, a  the part of the theatre where the actors or musicians perform
cannon, a   large, powerful gun used in the past that shot large metal balls

CHAPTER 5 – BY THE RIVER – on Quizlet

River Thames, the the longest river in England and the second longest in the UK; it rises in Cotswold Hills in Gloucestershire and flows into the North Sea; it is 346 km long; it has been an important route for trade and transport since Prehistoric times
Globe Theatre, the the first one was built at the time of Queen Elizabeth I to show Shakespeare’s plays; the newest opened in 1997 to show the Elizabethan theatre at an interactive lesson and exhibition
William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) the greatest English poet and playwright; he was born in Stratford-upon—von; from 1585-1592 he worked as an actor and playwright in London and he owned a company called the King’s Men; he wrote tragedies and comedies, the most famous works: Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer night’s Dream; Hamlet
Tate Modern, the an art gallery to show the 20th and 21st century art in its 88 exhibition rooms
Millennium (Foot)Bridge, the it is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians only over the River Thames that connects the Globe with St Paul’s, designed for the Millennium, opened in 2000 and reopened after reconstruction in 2002
London Eye, the a giant Ferris wheel of 135 m high by Westminster Bridge; it can carry 800 passengers in a thirty-minute ride
Canary Wharf it is a complex of office buildings by the River Thames towards Greenwich
Docklands, the a dockland is a port / harbour area where cargo ships (vessels) can stay and leave their goods; in London it was once the biggest port area; today it is re-developed and offices and apartment buildings are built here
Thames Barrier, the a flood defence mechanism and machinery to prevent London from tidal floods opened in 1984;


Angles, Saxons, Jutes people who came to Britain from Germany, Holland and Denmark
October 14th, 1066 the Battle of Hastings won by William the Conqueror of Normandy
William the Conqueror of Normandy (King William I; The Norman; 1066-1087) defeated Danish King Harold at the battle of Hastings in 1066
Vikings, the violent and warrior people from Scandinavia (northern Europe, todays Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark) who sailed along the coast and burnt down a lot of towns
King Canute (or Cnut; House of Denmark; 1016-1035) he made peace in London by uniting Danish and Norwegian Vikings
Edward the Confessor (H. of Wessex; 1042-1066) a kind, warm-hearted person who he began the construction of Westminster Abbey; he promised the throne to his cousin William of Normandy
Danelaw (Danelagh) historical name, that part of England in the 9th-11th century where the laws of Denmark and the Danish King ruled (from the Scottish border down to London)
Harold (H. of Wessex; from 6 Jan to 14 Oct 1066) son of Godvin, Earl of Wessex; after the death of Edward the Confessor the Witan chose him to become the king
Witan, the an Anglo-Saxon council made up of noblemen, lords, knights and bishops that gave advice to the English king in everyday matters
port, a a town / city with an area of water where ships stop (= harbour / port), including the buildings around it
settler, a someone who goes to live in a place where not many people live, and starts to make it into a community
invader, an people, army etc that uses force (sometimes violence) to enter another country; e.g.: the Anglo-Saxons were invaders
explorer, an someone who travels to a place that other people don’t know much about in order to find out what is there
Mercia nowadays the Midlands; an Anglo-Saxon kingdom; most powerful and successful king of Mercia was King Offa (757-796)
Medieval (also Norman) London the history of London from 1066
(William I) to 1485 (Henry VII, a Tudor)
Northumbria a kingdom in north-east England and south-east Scotland in the 7th-10th centuries
guild, a a powerful group made up by craftsmen and tradesmen
apprentice, an a 11-12-year-old boy who began his education at a guild
journeyman, a a 13-14-yearl old boy who after being an apprentice went to other guilds around the country to get more knowledge and skills
coat-of-arms, a a symbol of e.g. a country; a noble family; a guild etc.


Plague, the and epidemic that killed lots of people around Europe from the 14th to the 17th century
Pudding Lane the Great Fire of London started here in a bakery
London Bridge 1 Old (Medieval) London Bridge was opened in 1209. It took 33 years to build. There were high houses o the bridge, and a drawbridge in the centre to let tall ships pass through.
2 New London Bridge was opened in 1831, it was the busiest bridge in London in the 19th century.3 Modern London Bridge: it wa opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1973. It connects the City and Southwark in central London.
King Charles II (Stewart, 1660-1685 He became king in 1660, after Britain was a republic for 11 years (1649-60; led by Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell). In Charles II’s reign occurred the Plague, the Fire of London and the Dutch Wars. On his death-bed he turned into a Roman Catholic from Anglican Protestant.
Thomas Farynor (/ Farriner King Charles II’s baker, the Great Fire of London started in his bakery.
Samuel Pepys A diary writer whose diary was important to get details about the Great Fire of London. It was said that he buried his best quality cheese and wine before he escaped from the fire.
Duke of York, the A title of nobility (like the Prince of Wales, Duke of Conwall etc.).  It is usually given to the second-born son of the current British monarch. Present Duke of York is *HRH Prince Andrew.

(*HRH: His Royal Highness)

St Paul’s Cathedral the most important cathedral in London, a new St Paul’s was built after the Great Fire of London
Christopher Wren, Sir An architect in the 17th century, he designed and rebuilt 52 churches after the Great Fire of London, including his masterpiece, St Paul’s Cathedral. He died at the age of 91.
Monument, the built in the City near Pudding Lane, it is 62 m high (202 feet), the exact distance from its base and the bakery where the fire started

Chapter 7 – MORE MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES – on Quizlet

British Museum, the the oldest museum in the world, visitors will see the works of man from prehistoric to modern times from around the world;
Most famous objects include: the Rosetta Stone, Parthenon sculptures, Egyptian mummies and the Portland Vase
Museum of London, the you can learn about London and its people from earliest times
Natural History Museum, the you can learn about our planet, our world, the people, animals and plants in it
Charles Dickens one of the most famous writers of England who wrote his novels in Victorian times; most famous Dickens characters are: Oliver Twist, David Copperfield and Nicholas Nickleby
Arthur Conan Doyle, Sir English writer whose popular characters were Sherlock Holmes, the clever detective and his friend, Watson
10 Baker Street the house where Sherlock Holmes lived in Doyle’s novels; nowadays it hosts The Sherlock Holmes Museum
Covent Garden once it was the place for the largest English market; nowadays there are shops, market stalls and street artists there; Covent Garden is home for The London Transport Museum and The Royal Opera House
Tate Britain the home of British art from 1500 to present
dungeon, a a dark cellar room in a castle used as a prison in the past
chamber, a a large room in a building used for meetings; old word for a private room (or bedroom)

Chapter 4 – WHITEHALL AND WESTMINSTER – on Quizlet

Whitehall a long road from Trafalgar Square to the Parliament
10 Downing Street there are 4 houses, number 10 is the home of the current British Prime Minister; the first was Sir Robert Walpole who got the home as a gift from King George II
King George II (Hanoverian, 1727-1760) followed his father King George I of Hanover on the throne; both spoke German as their mother tongue, but George II learnt to speak English
Sir Winston Churchill British prime minister at the time of World War II
Westminster Abbey London’s oldest church; English kings and queens are crowned here from William the Conqueror, many of them are also buried here
Houses of Parliament, the

(Westminster Palace)

home of the British government; there are 2 houses: the House of Commons (lower house, colour: green) and the House of Lords (upper house, colour: red)
Big Ben the name of the bell inside the clock tower of Westminster Palace
Guy Fawkes he and his friends tried to blow up the parliament on 5 November, 1605 (named the gunpowder plot)
Gunpowder plot, the Guy Fawkes and his friends tried to blow up the parliament on November 5, 1605
King James VI of Scotland / King James I of England (Stewart, 1603-1625) already a king for 29 years in Scotland hen crowned in England; son of Mary, Queen of Scots; he authorized King James Bible,
a translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England
November 5 Guy Fawkes Day to remember the gunpowder plot; people build bonfires and watch fireworks; kids make the guy and collect pennies going from house to house saying “Penny for the Guy”
King James Bible a translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, completed in 1611

Chapter 3 – THE CITY AND THE TOWER OF LONDON – on Quizlet

Lord Mayor the Mayor of a major city, there are 30 Lord Mayors in the UK (out of 66 cities)
Lord Mayor of London elected for 1 year (in November), it is an unpaid and not political position; the LMoL represents, supports and promotes businesses and the everyday life of the City of London and its people
Mansion House in London, it’s the Lord Mayor of London’s home
Henry Fitzailwyn the first Lord Mayor of London appointed by King Richard I in 1189
Bank of England it issues Pound Sterling the first opened in 1694
City, the the oldest part of London, home of banks and international offices – only 4-5 thousand people live here so this part of London is nearly empty at the weekend
Tower of London, the William the Conqueror built it to show his power; it stands by Tower Bridge next to the River Thames; in the past it had different functions, e.g. it was: a royal palace, the Royal Zoo, a fortress, a prison, a place of executions, a jewel house…
River Thames, the the river of London that is 346 km long and flows into the North Sea; England’s longest, the UK’s 2nd longest river; it has been an important trade and transport route since Celtic times
King Edward IV (Yorkish, 1461-1483) he established the House of York; during his reign William Caxton established the first printing press in Westminster (late 15th cent.)
Beefeater, a a guardsman at the Tower of London (other name: Yeoman Warder) – there are 36 of them
Yeoman Warder, a a guardsman at the Tower of London (other name: Beefeater) – there are 36 of them
Anne Boleyn 2nd wife of King Henry VIII; mother of Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Mary I (Tudor, 1553-1558) Queen Elizabeth I’s sister who put Elizabeth into the prison of the Tower; she was a Roman Catholic; nickname: Bloody Mary because she imprisoned and killed many Protestants
Tower Bridge a bascule bridge (=drawbridge) built in 1894 and it is one of the most famous London landmarks; when a tall vessel comes the bridge’s middle section is raised by massive engines in 1 minute (4-5 times a week)
Tower Bridge Experience a popular exhibition about Tower Bridge inside it
Monument, The built in the City near Pudding Lane, it is 60 m high, the exact distance from its base and the bakery where the fire started

Chapter 2 – ROYAL LONDON – on Quizlet

royal relating to a king or a queen or the members of their family
Buckingham Palace the London home for the Queen, also for her offices
The Mall a famous road in London from Trafalgar Square to Buckingham Palace
Trafalgar Square a landmark of London, a square named in honour of Lord Admiral Nelson who led the British at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805

You can find at Trafalgar Square: The National Gallery, Nelson’s Column and Britain’s smallest police office,

at Christmas a 60-70 ft tall X-mas tree is set up and decorated here, it’s always a gift from Norway

Changing the Guard a popular tourist event which takes place at Buckingham Palace every day from May – June, every second day other times of the year
Queen’s Gallery on Buckingham Palace Road, you can see many paintings from all over the world here
Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace – a tourist attraction where you can see the Queen’s horses and coaches
Kensington Palace the birthplace and childhood home of Queen Victoria; it was Princess Diana’s London home
Windsor Castle the oldest royal home, William the Conqueror built it as a fort in 1080
State Opening of Parliament, the the Queen opens the parliamentary season in Westminster Palace in November
Trooping of the Colour the Queen’s official birthday on the second Saturday every June when the people of London celebrate Her Majesty with a big parade
Hampton Court royal residence of King Henry VIII

Chapter 1 – A GREAT CITY – on Quizlet

Queen Elizabeth the Second current British monarch
Londinium London’s Roman name
AD 43 the year the Romans came to England
Angles, Saxons, Jutes people who came to Britain from Germany, Holland and Denmark
October 14th, 1066 the Battle of Hastings won by William the Conqueror of Normandy
William the Conqueror of Normandy (King William I; The Norman; 1066-1087) defeated Danish King Harold at the battle of Hastings in 1066
Henry VIII (The Tudors; 1509-1547) the second Tudor Monarch, on throne from 1509 to 1547; had 6 wives
Elizabeth I (The Tudors; 1558-1603) King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn’s daughter; during her reign great explorers discovered a lot of new lands and Shakespeare wrote many of his plays
Plague, the and epidemic that killed lots of people around Europe from the 14th to the 17th century
1665 the Year of the Great Plague
1666 the Great fire of London
Pudding Lane the Great Fire of London started here in a bakery
St Paul’s Cathedral the most important cathedral in London, a new St Paul’s was built after the Great Fire of London
Queen Victoria (Hanoverian, 1837-1901) had nine children; she ordered to build the Royal Albert Hall in the remembrance of her husband Albert who died
1851 the year of the Great Exhibition in London
Hyde Park the largest park in London
Tube, the London’s underground network, the first line was opened in 1863 (the Metropolitan line)
1939-1945 the Second World War